Explain the basics of CNC tools

2019-06-01 10:42:54

CNC machine tools requirements for tool materials

Higher hardness and wear resistance

The hardness of the cutting part of the tool must be higher than the hardness of the workpiece material. The higher the hardness of the tool material, the better the wear resistance. The hardness of the tool material at room temperature should be above HRC62.

Sufficient strength and toughness

The tool is subjected to a large pressure during overcutting, sometimes under shock and vibration conditions. To prevent the tool from collapsing and breaking, the tool material must have sufficient strength and toughness, and the bending strength is generally used to indicate the strength of the tool material. The impact value is used to indicate the toughness of the tool material.

Higher heat resistance

Heat resistance refers to the ability of the tool material to maintain hardness, wear resistance, strength and toughness at high temperatures. It is the main indicator for measuring the cutting performance of tool materials. This property is also called the red hardness of the tool material.

Better thermal conductivity

The greater the thermal conductivity of the tool material, the more heat is transferred from the tool, which helps to reduce the cutting temperature of the tool and improve the durability of the tool.

Good processability

In order to facilitate the machining of the tool, the tool material is required to have good process properties, such as forging, rolling, welding, cutting and grinding of the tool material, heat treatment characteristics and high temperature plastic deformation properties, for cemented carbide and ceramic tools. The material also requires good sintering and pressure forming properties.

Tool material type

High speed steel

High-speed steel is an alloy tool steel composed of alloying elements such as W, Cr, Mo, etc. It has high thermal stability, high strength and toughness, and has certain hardness and wear resistance, so it is suitable for processing non-ferrous metals and Various metal materials, due to the high processing technology of high-speed steel, are suitable for the manufacture of complex forming tools, especially powder metallurgy high-speed steel, with anisotropic mechanical properties, reduced quenching deformation, suitable for manufacturing precision and Complex forming tools.

Cemented carbide

Cemented carbide has high hardness and wear resistance, and its cutting performance is better than that of high-speed steel. Its durability is several times to several tens of times that of high-speed steel, but its impact toughness is poor. Due to its excellent cutting performance, it is widely used as a tool material.